Visualizing Toxic Subjects

Rachel Lee & Molly Bloom: Interventions

This image projects the concept of policing as benevolence. This is clearly ironic with the statistical data from the ACLU next to the images of the friendly police officers. The...Read more

Containing Toxicity

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Found Image: Imran Khan as The One with a Blue Throat

 This Pakistani Muslim League-Nawaz (PML(N)) supporters’ image of Imran Khan as Shiva visualizes a sensational anxiety around the minority figure in Pakistan. In this image, Imran Khan’s face is transposed as Shiva, a chief deity in the Hindu pantheon. Bringing together Hindu iconography and the likeness of Imran Khan, the image conveys a tension around religious minorities and electoral politics in the region. Moreover, the caption text works with the image brings to the fore a critique of personality cults. Before being elected as the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, was an internationally famed cricket player.
     At the center of the image in the foreground, spanning about a third of the frame, is Imran Khan’s slightly tilted face, but with light blue skin, thick gold earrings, a tilak, and flowing black locks with a thick top knot. Alongside are a crescent moon, drum, trident, and cobra. A snow-capped mountain range is pictured in the background; the Himalayas are Shiva's holy abode.  These signifiers come together as a visual metaphor, Imran Khan is god, is a Hindu god.
      The intent of the production and circulation of image appears to have been to stigmatize and mock Imran Khan and PTI's alleged support of and commitments to religious minorities in Pakistan. The religious minority figure in Pakistan both a source of sustenance for maintaining an idealized ethos of an egalitarian Islamic democracy, but also a reminder of the state’s incapacity to be egalitarian in practice. Here, PTI supporters’ alleged sympathies with religious minorities in Pakistan are a source of tension and even suspicion. When first posted on a Nawaz Sharif and Shahbaz Sharif fan page on Facebook, the post included an instruction to "share [the image] and embarrass Imran Khan’s slaves [supporters]." But the image alone is not a clear mockery. Without the caption to contain the image’s excess, the visuals also come together to valorize Imran Khan as god, rather than simply mock his supporters’ or his party. The Urdu caption text overlayed onto the bottom of the image in a light blue font with a black outline constrains the visuals and guides the viewer’s interpretation: “PTI supporters have no faith or honesty, all they have is God Imran (Yuthio ka deen hai na imaan hai, unka sirf Imran bhagwan hain)” The text then works with the visuals to make the image toxic for religious minorities in Pakistan. A comparison of Shiva and Imran is connected with a comparison between PTI supporters and Hindus, who, in their idolatrous devotion of Shiva, among other gods, are pagan and irrational within a dominant Muslim framework. The image caches on such operative stereotypes about Hindus in Pakistan. As such, leading minority Hindu politicians and leaders in Pakistan immediately reacted to a visual substitution of a Hindu icon with the likeness of Imran Khan and worried about the unrestricted spread of an image they considered offensive to religious minorities. 
     Neelakanta, or “the one with a blue throat" is an epithet for Shiva. In Hindu mythology, Shiva is blue because he swallowed halahala, a deadly poison that emerged during an episodic churning of the ocean in a joint effort by devas and asuras toward extracting a special nectar. The poison turned Shiva’s body blue, but the feminine energy of Shakti and Shiva together were able to control the spread and absorption of the toxin. Shiva’s light blue skin, oft rolled-back eyes,  and cross-legged seat offer a contemplative calm in contrast to the deadly toxicity of halahala. The containment of toxicity is an impressive feat. As such, the image also points to how toxicity, or at least the control of toxicity, is a form of power. How is toxicity connected to containment? Perhaps the uncontainability of this image given both its visual excess as well as its circulation on social media contribute to its toxicity.


This image complicates toxicity on multiple levels that are often overlooked. First, the physical and actual toxicity of trash is present and makes me wonder, what about this setting has been...Read more

Clifford, James. "On Ethnographic Surrealism"

James Clifford uses the term ethnographic surrealism to describe a style of ethnography that makes use of fragments, juxtaposition, and collage. Read more

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